At this stage, it is unlikely that the remaining parties will travel to the Security Council to demand snapback sanctions. Reinstating UN sanctions could effectively kill the JCPOA, as it would eliminate incentives for Iran to comply with it. It would formally require all UN member states to impose Security Council sanctions on Iran and force Iran to cease nuclear activities authorized by the JCPOA, including uranium enrichment for its energy reactors. Given the far-reaching consequences of this measure, the Europeans, Russia and China should use all options within the JCPOA to resolve the compliance dispute as a first step. If the JCPOA`s resolution mechanisms do not incentivize Iran to comply, states will first be able to adopt other options to punish Iran without reducing UN sanctions. But that calculation could change if Iran takes other steps to break the deal or if it is unwilling to resolve the current rift. Even before the JCPOA was signed and implemented, The United States Congress attempted to hold the Obama administration to account by passing the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015, which required the president to confirm to Congress Iran`s compliance with the agreement every 90 days.  With the election of President Donald Trump, these periodic checks became an opportunity for President Trump to keep his election promise to “dismantle the disastrous iran deal.”  In April and July 2017, the Trump administration certified respect for the Iranians, while expressing strong reservations and reluctance.